Magnesium in the management of endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic severe multifactorial inflammatory disease characterised by the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside of the uterine cavity. The migration of uterine endometrial cells into the pelvic cavity form lesions on multiple sites across multiple organs. Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecological diseases in women, affecting around 15% of women of reproductive age. Women with endometriosis experience dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia (painful sex), pelvic floor muscle spasm, pelvic pain, chronic pelvic pain, chronic pain, fatigue, stress, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, headaches, orofacial pain, inflammation, and thyroid conditions.

Magnesium is an important mineral for normal biological function. It is involved in over 300 enzyme reactions.

It is involved in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), DNA, and RNA, mitochondrial health, utilisation of intracellular energy, relaxation of smooth muscle, normal muscle function, neurotransmission, neuromuscular transmission, parathyroid hormone metabolism, metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats, and bone health.

Reference: McEwen B. Magnesium in the management of endometriosis. JATMS 2021; 27(1): 18-21.