The impact of diet on cardiometabolic syndrome

Optimum nutrition plays the major role in optimum health. Cardiometabolic syndrome is a disease of unhealthy diet and lifestyle. It is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated triglyceride levels, fasting plasma glucose level (hyperglycaemia), elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level. It is a multifactorial risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome is generally regarded as a pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state. Inflammation drives insulin resistance and oxidative stress, further amplifying cardiometabolic syndrome.

There are numerous health consequences related to cardiometabolic syndrome; these include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, overweight, high adiposity, reproductive dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and obstructive sleep apnoea.

Diet and nutrition play major roles in the prevention and management of chronic disease, especially cardiometabolic syndrome. The Westernised diet (high in sugar, saturated fat, fried foods, refined grains) has numerous negative effects on the parameters of cardiometabolic syndrome.

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A predominantly plant-based, Mediterranean-style, low-glycaemic index diet and diets higher in fruits, vegetables, fibre, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, tree nuts, and potassium have been associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic syndrome. Additionally, the Palaeolithic diet has beneficial effects in the management of cardiometabolic syndrome.

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McEwen B. The impact of diet on cardiometabolic syndrome, J ATMS, 2018; 24(2): 72-77.